The Role of Spirulina (Arthrospira)

The Role of Spirulina (Arthrospira) in the Mitigation of Heavy-Metal Toxicity: An Appraisal



Heavy-metal toxicity imposes a potential worldwide threat to the environment and humans. Cadmium, mercury, lead, and arsenic are nonessential toxic heavy metals that are most frequently involved in environmental and health hazards. Conventional chelating agents are unsuitable for subchronic and chronic heavy-metal toxicities. Scientific literature reveals that Spirulina (Arthrospira), a photosynthetic filamentous cyanobacterium that is generally known as blue-green algae, alleviates experimentally induced heavy-metal toxicity. The present review attempts to summarize such studies regarding cadmium, mercury, lead, and arsenic toxicity. A total of 58 preclinical studies demonstrate the alleviative effect of Spirulina against experimental arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury toxicities. Five clinical studies reported protective effects of Spirulina against arsenic toxicity in humans. Clinical studies against three heavy metals were not found in the literature. The present literature study appears to show that Spirulina possesses promising heavy-metal toxicity-ameliorative effects that are mainly attributed to its intrinsic antioxidant activity.

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Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arsenic / toxicity
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Heavy Metal Poisoning / drug therapy
  • Heavy Metal Poisoning / prevention & control*
  • Humans
  • Metals, Heavy / toxicity*
  • Protective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Spirulina*


  • Metals, Heavy
  • Protective Agents
  • Arsenic

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About the Author
Stew Webb served in the United States Marine Corps and was Honorable Discharge. Stew was a Realtor-General Contractor-Home Builder until 3 car crashes in 2010-2011 and is now disabled. Stew turned Federal Whistle blower - Activist of 38 years and has been a guest on over 4,000 Radio and TV Programs since September 18, 1991 and now has his own Radio Network .Stew was responsible for the Congressional Investigations and Hearings that lead to the Appointment of Independent Prosecutor Arlin Adams in the 1989 HUD Hearings, the Silverado Savings and Loan Hearings Neil Bush Director, the Denver International Airport Frauds Hearings, the MDC Holdings, Inc. (MDC-NYSE) Illegal Political Campaign Money Laundering Colorado’s biggest case aka Keating 5 Hearings and the information provided that lead to the 2008 Illegal Bank Bailout. Stew was held as a Political Prisoner from 1992-1993 to silence his exposure by Leonard Millman his former in law with illegal charges of threatening harassing telephone calls charges which were dismissed with prejudice. Leonard Millman, George HW Bush, George W Bush, Jeb Bush, Neil Bush, Bill Clinton, Hillary Clinton, Larry Mizel, Phil Winn, Norman Brownstein, John McCain and Mitt Romney to name a few are all partners in what is known as the Bush - Millman - Clinton Organized Crime Syndicate. Leonard Millman (Deceased 2004) was member of the "Illuminati Council of 13". Larry Mizel is now in control of this Organized Crime Syndicate RICO.


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